- Black/Scholes Option Pricing Model •
- Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) •
- Common ownership •
- Disclosure •
- ERISA •
- Externalities •
- Index Fund •
- institutional investor •
- SEC Sole Interest Rule.
The U.S. securities markets have recently undergone (or are undergoing) three fundamental transitions: (1) institutionalization (with the result that institutional investors now dominate both trading and stock ownership); (2) extraordinary ownership concentration (with the consequence that the three largest U.S.
This article will focus on the desire of institutions for greater ESG disclosures and suggest that two reasons underlie this demand for more information: (1) ESG disclosures overlap substantially with systematic risk, which is the primary concern of diversified investors; and (2) high common ownership enables institutions to take collective action to curb externalities caused by portfolio firms, so long as the gains to their portfolio from such action exceed the losses caused to the externality-creating firms. This transition to a portfolio-wide perspective (both in voting and investment decisions) has significant implications but also is likely to provoke political controversy. In its final hours, the Trump Administration adopted new rules that discourage voting based on ESG criteria and thus by extension chill ESG investing. This controversy will continue.
As more institutions shift to portfolio-wide decision making, there is an optimistic upside: externalities may be curbed by collective shareholder action. But, there are also downsides, including that the disclosure needs of individual investors and institutional investors will increasingly diverge, and serious conflicts can arise. Of course, not all institutional investors are indexed or even diversified, but those that remain undiversified (for example, hedge funds) logically have the perspective of an option-holder and favor greater risk-taking. Once again, retail investors have different perspectives and preferences than institutional investors. The SEC should seek to serve the needs of these different classes, rather than subordinate them to an assumed common standard.