This paper assesses how Italian companies have implemented the regulation on related party transactions enacted by Consob in 2010. Companies have been given some degree of freedom in devising their internal codes: they may ?opt-up? or ?opt-down? from some of the default provisions set forth in the regulation, thus tailoring internal codes to their own individual needs.
We investigate how firms have made use of these options, building an ad hoc firm-specific indicator which focuses on five key provisions. We find that the options we focus on have been taken advantage of in a variety of ways. We also verify the hypothesis that firms adopt stricter/looser procedures depending on corporate governance characteristics. While non-controlled firms seem to have set up stricter procedures, among controlled-companies those where a single shareholder or a coalition holds a stake lower than 50% of voting and cash flow rights have weaker procedures. Finally, while a higher presence of independent directors does not seem to play a role, the presence of a director nominated by institutional investors is positively correlated with stricter procedures.
In spite of the highly concentrated ownership of listed companies, Italy is one of the countries in which institutional investors are on the rise and are playing an increasingly active role in the governance of their investee companies. Against...Read more
This essay argues that, to address the Covid-19 crisis, in addition to creating a special temporary insolvency regime, relaxing provisions for companies in the vicinity of insolvency, and enabling companies to hold virtual meetings, policymakers...Read more
The stylized fact that grounds much of the recent literature on common ownership is the parallel increase in the profitability of oligopolistic industries and common ownership. Some have argued that the growth in common ownership has caused the...Read more
We exploit the UK Bribery Act of 2010 to test whether the pricing of audit changes with the level of corruption/bribery in the firm’s business environment. Adopting a triple difference design, we show that affected firms operating in countries...Read more