Working Paper

ICO Investors

We conduct a detailed analysis of investors in successful initial coin offerings (ICOs). The average ICO has 4,700 contributors. The median participant contributes small amounts and many investors sell their tokens before the underlying product...Read more

Ruediger Fahlenbrach
Marc Frattaroli
05 August 2019

Capital-Market Effects of Securities Regulation: Prior Conditions, Implementation, and Enforcement

This paper examines the economic effects of changes in securities regulation. We analyze two key directives in the European Union (EU) that tightened market abuse and transparency regulation. All EU member states were required to adopt these two...Read more

Luzi Hail
Christian Leuz
01 February 2014

Market Efficiency after the Financial Crisis: It?s Still a Matter of Information Costs

Compared to the worldwide financial carnage that followed the Subprime Crisis of 2007-2008, it may seem of small consequence that it is also said to have demonstrated the bankruptcy of an academic financial institution: the Efficient Capital...Read more

Ronald Gilson
Reinier Kraakman
01 February 2014